Acts 23:16 mentions "Paul's sister's son" and here Luke slips up and reveals that Paul is not a Jew but a Herodian!
Paul was deceptive when he claims: "Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they offspring of Abraham? So am I."(2Corinthians 11:22) "I am a Pharisee, the son of Pharisees." (Acts 23:6) "Circumcised the eighth day, of the nation of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to the Law, a Pharisee;" (Philippians 3-5) (It appeared to be Herodian policy to erase any foreign influence by requiring circumcision thus required Sylleus, who poisoned Obodas, king of Arabia, to be circumcised before marrying Herod the Great's sister Salome (Antiquities 16:7:6)) In addition his grandfather Herod the Great's father Antipater was an Idumaean and, when John Hyrcanus subdued all the Idumeans, he only "permitted them to stay in that country, if they would circumcise their genitals, and make use of the laws of the Jews" (Antiquities 13:9:1) "My manner of life from my youth, spent from the beginning among my own nation and at Jerusalem (Qumran), is known by all the Jews. They have known for a long time, if they are willing to testify, that according to the strictest party of our religion I have lived as a Pharisee." (Acts 26:4) "I advanced in Judaism beyond many among my people of the same age, for I was far more zealous for the traditions of my ancestors". (Galatians 1:14) "I indeed, am a man, a Jew, having been born in Tarsus of Cilicia, and brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, having been trained up a child, according to the exactitude of a law of the fathers, being zealous of God, as all you are to-day." (Acts 22:3) "Paul said to the centurion who was standing by, “Is it lawful for you to flog a man who is a Roman citizen and uncondemned?” When the centurion heard this, he went to the tribune and said to him, “What are you about to do? For this man is a Roman citizen." So the tribune came and said to him, “Tell me, are you a Roman citizen?” And he said, 'Yes.'" (Acts 22:25-27)
Inductive reasoning shows that the sister in "Paul's sister's son" Acts 23:16 would have to be his step-sister Salome, the daughter of Herodias, the wife of Herod Antipas.
This implies that Paul is a Herodian, the son of Herod Antipas and his first wife Phasaelis who was the daughter of King Aretas IV of the Nabataeans and his queen Chuldu. Herod's first marriage had been prearranged by Herod the Great to preserve peace with King Aretas IV. (Herod the Great's mother was a Nabataean.) When Herod Antipas divorced Phasaelis to marry Herodias, John the Baptist opposed him, which lead to his beheading, and it caused a war with the Nabataeans that Herod Antipas lost. It is for this reason that Paul's ancestry was concealed.
The son in "Paul's sister's son" Acts 23:16 would be Timothy (Herod, son of Aristobulus and Salome, the daughter of Herodias) who was made the crown prince of Agrippa II who was childless. His presence is likely because his brother is present: Paul is accused of taking Trophimus (Aristobulus, the brother of Timothy) into the Temple in Acts 21:28-29.
Paul's relationship is further supported by Romans 16:13: "Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord; also his mother, who has been a mother to me as well." Salome's natural father is Herod Thomas and thus would be Paul's step-uncle. (Herod Thomas is nicknamed Rufus because his father Herod the Great deprived him of his birthright when his mother Mariamme II, daughter of the High Priest Simon Boethus, was found to know of a plot to poison Herod the Great. (Herod Thomas was Rufus because he was like the red haired Esau who was deprived of his inheritance by Jacob. "Chosen in the Lord" refers to the fact that he is Jesus' disciple Thomas.) Herod Thomas' mother Mariamme II would be Paul's step-grandmother, however it is more likely that Paul is saying that Herodias, being Herod Thomas' wife, has the role of mother to Salome and therefore also as step-mother to Paul.
Paul's relationship is also supported by the verses above in Romans 16:10b-11: "Greet those who belong to the family of Aristobulus. Greet my kinsman (relative) Herodian (referring to the young Herod (Timothy), son of Aristobulus and Salome.)"
Salome's husband is Aristobulus and is therefore Paul's step-brother-in-law and they are all Herodians as Aristobulus is the son of Herod of Chalcis, the natural brother of Herodias, both having the same father Aristobulus, who was murdered by his father Herod the Great. This murdered Aristobulus was married to Bernice daughter of Salome, the sister of Herod the Great. (Herod Antipas was step-brother to this murdered Aristobulus as he was the son Herod the Great and his Samaritan wife Malthace.)
Salome's three sons with Aristobulus were Herod, Agrippa, and Aristobulus; their Christian names were Timothy, Tychicus, and Trophimus. These would be Paul's nephews since he is the step-brother of Salome, since she is the step-daughter of Herod Antipas.These three nephews of Paul are shown together in Acts 20:4: "He (Paul) was accompanied by ... Timothy also, and Tychicus and Trophimus from the province of Asia." Paul's association and love for Timothy is not surprising as Timothy would be his nephew.
Acts 13:1 "Now in the church that was at Antioch there were certain prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen who had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul." (The phrase "brought up with Herod the tetrarch also applies to Saul. Manean was probably just a freedman of Herod, but having importance in the church as Titus.)
Paul (Saul) heritage would be 1/8 Edomite (forcibly converted to Judaism by John Hyrcanus c. 125 BC) from his great grandfather Antipater + 1/8 Nabatean-Arab from his great grandmother Cypros + 1/4 Samaritan (resettled by Sargon II king of the Assyrians) from his grandmother Malthace, wife of Herod the Great) + 1/2 Nabatean-Arab from mother Phasaelis, Herod Antipas' wife. (Paul would have been circumcised to emphasize Jewish heritage and be able to claim that he was from the tribe of Benjamin from his Samaritan grandmother, but certainly not a pure Jew.)
So the truth is now out there and it explains many things such as the Jews adamantly opposing Paul and how he was escorted to Caesarea with a detachment of two hundred soldiers, seventy horsemen and two hundred spearmen (Acts 23:23) and why he was beheaded by Nero as opposed to Peter who was crucified. It also explains why Jesus' Church was absorbed by the Herodian Church with Paul's letters becoming paramount in its development.
Indications of his birthday:
In 37AD (Jonathan Annas is High Priest Paul (Saul) was an acolyte at age 20 (almost 21) at the deposing of Stephen: "And they, having cried out with a loud voice, stopped their ears, and did rush with one accord upon him (Stephen), and having cast him forth outside of the city, they were stoning him -- and the witnesses did put down their garments at the feet of a young man called Saul" (Acts 7:57-58) (37-21=16)
"For ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it: For you have heard of my former manner of life in Judaism, how I used to persecute the church of God beyond measure and tried to destroy it;" (Galatians 1:13,14)
"As for zeal, persecuting the church; as for righteousness based on the law, faultless. "(Philippians 3:6-8)
"For I am the least of the apostles, unworthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God." (1Corinthians 15:9)
In 57 AD at Ephesus Paul stays for his birthday: "And having sent to Macedonia two of those ministering to him, Timothy and Erastus, he himself stayed a chronon (40) in Asia."(Acts 19:22) (57- 40=17)
|age 14||Qumran||Studies under the sponsorship of Gamaliel, grandson of Hillel at Qumran and Ein Feshkha||"I indeed, am a man, a Jew, having been born in Tarsus of Cilicia, and brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, having been trained up a child (paideúō from país), according to the exactitude of a law of the fathers, being zealous of God, as all you are to-day. " (Acts 22:3)|
|age 17||(Mird)||Daughter of Jesus and Mary Magdalene is born||"And certain men having cleaved to him (Paul), did believe, among whom is also Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman, by name Damaris (Phoebe, daughter of Jesus), and others with them." (Acts 17:34)|
|36AD Winter||age 20||Qumran||Paul, an acolyte beginning his preliminary entry to Qumran, seeing Vitellius and his troops, writes Pesher of Habakkuk||
Josephus: Antiquities of the Jews 18.5.3a "Vitellius got himself ready for war against Aretas with two legions of heavy-armed infantry and such light-armed infantry and cavalry as were attached to them as auxiliaries. Proceeding from the kingdoms that were under the Roman yoke, he pushed toward Petra and occupied Ptolemaïs. Since he had started to lead his army through the land of Judaea, the Jews of the highest standing went to meet him and entreated him not to march through their land. For, they said, it was contrary to their tradition to allow images, of which there were many attached to the military standards, to be brought upon their soil. Yielding to their entreaty, he abandoned his original plan and ordered his army to march through the Great Plain,"|
There was great concern at Qumran that if the soldiers marched through their territory on the way to Petra that their hidden money would be discovered. Vitellius accommodated them and marched another way. It is unlikely that this pesher was written by Paul as he was not yet a "young man".
Pesher of Habakkuk (1QpHab): Comparing the Romans to the Caldeans, the pesherist writes "[Its pesher] refers to the Kittim (Romans) who trample the earth with their horses and beasts. [Its pesher] refers to the House of Absalom (the traitor son of David: i.e Jesus) and the men of its Council who kept silent when the Teacher of Righteousness was punished and did not help him against the Man of a Lie who flouted the Law in the midst of their whole Council. [Its pesher] concerns the Wicked Priest who was called by the name of truth (John 14:06: Jesus said to him, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life,") when he first arose."
|20||Jerusalem||Stephen is deposed (He is Jonathan Annas who was High Priest from 36 AD)|
Caligula is Emperor 28_March 37AD
Paul is still acolyte at age 20
(Josephus: Antiquities of the Jews 18.5.3b) while he himself (Vitellius), together with Herod the tetrarch and his friends, went up to Jerusalem to sacrifice to God during the traditional festival which the Jews were celebrating there. When he arrived there, he was greeted with special warmth by the Jewish multitude.he made a stay there (Jerusalem) for three days, within which time he (Vitellius) deprived Jonathan of the high priesthood (36-37AD), and gave it to his brother Theophilus (37- 41 AD) But when on the fourth day letters came to him, which informed him (Vitellius) of the death of Tiberius (16 March 37 AD), he obliged the multitude to take an oath of fidelity to Gaius; (Caligula 37-41 AD)|
"For you have heard of my former life in Judaism, how I persecuted the church of God violently and tried to destroy it. And I was advancing in Judaism beyond many of my own age among my people, so extremely zealous was I for the traditions of my fathers." (Galatians 1:13-14)
"And when the blood of your witness Stephen was being poured forth, I (Paul) also was standing by and assenting to his death, and keeping the garments of those putting him to death." (Acts 22:20)
"And having cast him forth outside of the city, they were stoning him (Stephen) -- and the witnesses did put down their garments at the feet of a 'young man' called Saul." (Acts 07:58)
|age 20||(Joppa)||The son of Jesus is born||"And the word of God increased." (Acts 6:7a) (Its placement is in March, but this the three month viable point of pregnancy in retrospect of the actual birth in September. His name is shown as Jesus Justus by Paul in Colossians 4:11. (Justus means next in line to the kingship which was previously held by Jesus' younger brother James the Just.)|
|age 20||Damascus||Paul is blinded|
and baptized by Ananias (Simon Magus) and entered into his Church as a novice
"For I would have you know, brethren, that the gospel which was preached by me is not according to man. For I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it, but I received it through a revelation of Jesus Christ." (Galatians 1:11,12)|
"But when he who had set me apart before I was born (baptism by Ananias), and who called me by his grace, was pleased to reveal his Son (Jesus) to me, in order that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I did not immediately consult with anyone;" (Galatians 1:15-16)
"And in the going, he came near to Damascus, and suddenly there shone round about him a light from the heaven, and having fallen upon the earth, he heard a voice saying to him, 'Saul, Saul, why me do you persecute?'
And he said, 'Who are you, Lord?'
and the Lord said, 'I am Jesus whom you do persecute; hard for you at the pricks to kick;'
trembling also, and astonished, he said, 'Lord, what do you wish me to do?' and the Lord said unto him, 'Arise, and enter into the city, and it shall be told you what it behooves you to do.'
And the men who are journeying with him stood speechless, hearing indeed the voice but seeing no one,
and Saul arose from the earth, and his eyes having been opened, he beheld no one, and leading him by the hand they brought him to Damascus, and he was three days without seeing, and he did neither eat nor drink." (Acts 9:3-9)
"Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not my work in the Lord? If I am not an apostle to others, at least I am to you; for you are the seal of my apostleship in the Lord." (1 Corinthians 9:1,2)
|age 23||Damascus, Jerusalem||Paul graduates at Samekh as proselyte, member of the Poor||
"Nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those who were apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia (Tarsus), and returned again to Damascus." (Galatians 1:17)|
"In Damascus the governor under King Aretas (9BC - 40AD) had the city of the inhabitants of Damascus guarded in order to arrest me. But I was lowered in a basket from a window in the wall and slipped through his hands." (2Corinthians 11:32-33)
"Then after three years (in Damascus having being rescued in a basket at the end of his study), I went up to Jerusalem to visit Cephas (Peter) and remained with him fifteen days. But I saw none of the other apostles except James the Lord's brother." (Galatians 1:18-19)
(Vatican Museum: NABATEAN SEPULCHRAL INSCRIPTION REFERRING TO THE 46th YEAR OF THE KING ARETAS (37 AD), WHO IS QUOTED BY THE APOSTLE PAUL (WHO CONVERTED AROUND THIS TIME)) "inscriptio sepulcralis nabathea annum indicans XLVI Regis Aretae de quo meminit Paul aposolus qui eodem anno XXXVII P C ad Christum est conversus"
"And having received nourishment" (three years in a monastery), "was strengthened, and Saul was with the disciples in Damascus certain days, and immediately in the synagogues he was preaching the Christ, that he is the Son of God. And all those hearing were amazed, and said, 'Is not this he who laid waste in Jerusalem those calling on this name, and hither to this intent had come, that he might bring them bound to the chief priests?' And Saul was still more strengthened, and he was confounding the Jews dwelling in Damascus, proving that this is the Christ.
And when many days were fulfilled, the Jews took counsel together to kill him, and their counsel against him was known to Saul; they were also watching the gates both day and night, that they may kill him, and the disciples having taken him, by night did let him down by the wall, letting down in a basket. And Saul, having come to Jerusalem, did try to join himself to the disciples, and they were all afraid of him, not believing that he is a disciple, and Barnabas having taken him, brought [him] unto the apostles, and did declare to them how in the way he saw the Lord, and that he spake to him, and how in Damascus he was speaking boldly in the name of Jesus." (Acts 9:19-26)
|age 26||Tarsus||Paul having continued his study at Tarsus graduating as a bishop; Barnabas collects Paul in Tarsus to bring him to Antioch|
They name themselves Christians
"Now in what I am writing to you, I assure you before God that I am not lying. Then I went into the regions of Syria and Cilicia. I was still unknown by sight to the churches of Judea which were in Christ; but only, they kept hearing, He who once persecuted us is now preaching the faith which he once tried to destroy. And they were glorifying God 1because of me." (Galatians 1:20–24)|
"And Barnabas went forth to Tarsus, to seek for Saul, and having found him, he brought him to Antioch (of Syria), and it came to pass that they a whole year did assemble together in the assembly, and taught a great multitude, the disciples also were divinely called first in Antioch Christians." (Acts 11:25-26)
|March 44AD||age 27||Qumran||Barnabas and Paul sent to Qumran to relieve the famine||"And in those days there
came from Jerusalem (Qumran) prophets to Antioch in Syria, and one of them, by name Agabus, having stood up, did signify through the Spirit
a great dearth is about to be throughout all the world - which also came to
pass in the time of Claudius Caesar - and
the disciples, according as any one was prospering, determined each of them to
send for ministration to the brethren dwelling in Judea, which also they did, having sent unto the elders
by the hand of Barnabas and Saul." (Acts 11:27-30)|
Paul discusses the issue of circumcision with the leaders in Jerusalem:
(Epistles to Galatians 2:1-10) "Fourteen years" (This has been difficult to reconcile especially with the confusion of this being the the time when Paul brought up the circumcision issue privately and therefore not the Council of Jerusalem in 46 - some say 50AD for that Council in order to account for the 14 years. Its solution lies in the fact that Paul is referring to Qumran - the coded Jerusalem in plural - thus it is the time that Paul in 30 AD at the age of 14 - also 14 years back - began studies at Qumran and Ein Feshkha.) "later I went up again to Jerusalem, this time with Barnabas. I took Titus along also. I went in response to a revelation and set before them the gospel that I preach among the Gentiles. But I did this privately to those who seemed to be leaders, for fear that I was running or had run my race in vain. Yet not even Titus, who was with me, was compelled to be circumcised, even though he was a Greek. This matter arose because some false brothers had infiltrated our ranks to spy on the freedom we have in Christ Jesus and to make us slaves. We did not give in to them for a moment, so that the truth of the gospel might remain with you. As for those who seemed to be important--whatever they were makes no difference to me; God does not judge by external appearance--those men added nothing to my message. On the contrary, they saw that I had been entrusted with the task of preaching the gospel to the Gentiles, just as Peter had been to the Jews. For God, who was at work in the ministry of Peter as an apostle to the Jews, was also at work in my ministry as an apostle to the Gentiles. James, Peter and John, those reputed to be pillars, gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship when they recognized the grace given to me. They agreed that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the Jews. All they asked was that we should continue to remember the poor, the very thing I was eager to do." (Galatians 2:1-10)
"And Barnabas and Saul returned to Jerusalem from Jerusalem (Qumran), having fulfilled the ministration, having taken also with them John, who was surnamed Mark." (Acts 12:25)
|September 44AD||age 27||(Mird)||Birth of the second son of Jesus and Mary Magdalene||"But the word of God grew and multiplied" (Acts 12:24)|
|Paul's First Journey 44-46 AD|
|age 27||Antioch||First Mission Journey of Barnabas with Paul and John Mark from Antioch to Seleucia then to Cyprus||"And there were certain in Antioch of Syria, in the assembly there, prophets and teachers; both Barnabas (Joses, brother of Jesus), and Simeon who is called Niger (Simon Peter) and Lucius the Cyrenian (Luke, assigned to Cyrene), also Manaen (Titus) and Saul; and in their ministering to the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, 'Separate you to me both Barnabas and Saul to the work to which I have called them,' then having fasted, and having prayed, and having laid the hands on them, they sent them away. These, indeed, then, having been sent forth by the Holy Spirit, went down to Seleucia thence also they sailed to Cyprus, and having come unto Salamis, they declared the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews, and they had also John as a ministrant; "(Acts 13:1-5) (This probably when Peter and John Aquila (age 46) would travel to Rome. John Aquila would marry Priscilla, a member of his Roman family, and they would conceive a son, John II in 45AD )|
|age 27||Cyprus||Paul reveals to Agrippa II that it was Simon Magus who poisoned his father.||"And having gone through the island unto Paphos, they found a certain Magian, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name Bar-Jesus ('affiliated with Jesus: Simon Magus); who was with the proconsul Sergius Paulus (Agrippa II), an intelligent man; this one having called for Barnabas and Saul, did desire to hear the word of God, and there withstood them Elymas (Simon) the Magian -- for so is his name interpreted - seeking to pervert the proconsul from the faith. And Saul (who also is Paul), having been filled with the Holy Spirit (speaking for Jesus), and having looked steadfastly on him, said, 'O full of all guile, and all profligacy, son of a devil, enemy of all righteousness, will you not cease perverting the right ways of the Lord? and now, lo, a hand of the Lord is upon you, and you shall be blind, not seeing the sun for a season;' and presently there fell upon him a mist and darkness, and he, going about, was seeking some to lead [him] by the hand; then the proconsul having seen what has come to pass, did believe, being astonished at the teaching of the Lord." (Acts 13:6-12)|
|age 28||Paphos, Perga||First Mission Journey of Barnabas with Paul and John Mark by ship from Paphos, Cyprus, to Perga, Turkey||"And those about Paul having set sail from Paphos, came to Perga of Pamphylia," (Acts 13:13a)|
|age 28||(Mird)||Mary Magdalene requests a divorce from Jesus||"and, John (Mark) having
departed from the First Mission Journey, did turn back to Jerusalem (Qumran)." (Acts 13:13b) |
John Mark, 'the disciple Jesus loved' was the stand-in for Mary Magdalene at male affairs like the Last Supper and her guardian (See Jesus on the cross talks with Mary Magdalene).
|age 28||Antioch of Pisidia||First Mission Journey of Barnabas with Paul to Antioch of Pisidia||"And they (Paul and Barnabas) having gone through from Perga, came to
Antioch of Pisidia, and having gone into the synagogue on the sabbath-day, they
sat down, and after the reading of the law
and of the prophets, the chief men of the synagogue sent unto them, saying,
'Men, brethren, if there be a word in you of exhortation unto the people, say
on.'" (Acts 13:14)|
"And the Jews stirred up the devout and honorable women, and the first men of the city, and did raise persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and did put them out from their borders;" (Acts 13:50)
|age 28||Iconium||First Mission Journey of Barnabas with Paul expelled from Antioch of Pisidia to Iconium||"And they having shaken off the dust of their feet against them, came to Iconium, and the disciples were filled with joy and the Holy Spirit. " (Jesus who is in Iconium has encouraged them.) "And it came to pass in Iconium, that they did enter together into the synagogue of the Jews, and spake, so that there believed both of Jews and Greeks a great multitude; and the unbelieving Jews did stir up and made evil the souls of the nations against the brethren; a long time, indeed, therefore, did they abide speaking boldly in the Lord, who is testifying to the word of His grace, and granting signs and wonders to come to pass through their hands. And the multitude of the city was divided, and some were with the Jews, and some with the apostles, and when there was a purpose both of the nations and of the Jews with their rulers to use them despitefully, and to stone them," (Acts 13:51-52; 14:1-5)|
|age 28||Lystra||First Mission Journey of Barnabas with Paul fleeing to Lycaonia and Lystra||"They having become aware, did flee to the
cities of Lycaonia, Lystra, ... and to the region round about, and there they were proclaiming good news." (Acts 14:6)|
In Lystra they initialed Simon (23) the youngest brother of Jesus. "And a certain man in Lystra, impotent in the feet, was sitting, being lame from the womb of his mother -- who never had walked, this one was hearing Paul speaking, who, having steadfastly beheld him, and having seen that he has faith to be saved, said with a loud voice, 'Stand up on your feet upright;'and he was springing and walking," (Acts 14:8-10)
The people likened them to gods: Barnabas - Jupiter and Paul - Mercury. "and the multitudes having seen what Paul did, did lift up their voice, in the speech of Lycaonia, saying, 'The gods, having become like men, did come down unto us;'. They were calling also Barnabas Zeus, and Paul Hermes, since he was the leader in speaking." (Acts 14:11-12).
"And there came thither, from Antioch of Pisidia and Iconium, Jews, and they having persuaded the multitudes, and having stoned Paul, dragged him outside of the city, having supposed him to be dead; (Acts 14:19) and the disciples having surrounded him, having risen he entered into the city, and on the morrow he went forth with Barnabas to Derbe." (Acts 14:19-20)
|age 28||Derbe||First Mission Journey of Barnabas with Paul fleeing from Lystra to Derbe||"and the disciples having surrounded him (Paul), having risen he entered into the city, and on the morrow he went forth with Barnabas to Derbe." (Acts 14:19-20)|
|age 29||Antioch of Pisidia||Retracing steps Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch (in Pisidia),||"Having proclaimed good news also to that city,and having discipled many, they turned back to Lystra, and Iconium, and Antioch of Pisidia Paul and Barnabas, confirming the souls of the disciples, exhorting to remain in the faith, and that through many tribulations it behooves us to enter into the reign of God, and having appointed to them by vote elders in every assembly, having prayed with fastings, they commended them to the Lord in whom they had believed." (Acts 14:21-23)|
|age 29||Antioch||Retracing steps to Pamphylia, then to Perga and Attalia, and sailing back to Antioch ending First Mission Journey||"And having passed through Pisidia, they came to Pamphylia, and having spoken in Perga the word, they went down to Attalia, and thence did sail to Antioch, whence they had been given by the grace of God for the work that they fulfilled; and having come and gathered together the assembly, they declared as many things as God did with them, and that He did open to the nations a door of faith; and they abode there not a little time with the disciples."(Acts 14:24-27)|
|age 29||Jerusalem||Council of Jerusalem allows the uncircumcised, but really is setting the stage for the Schism of the Churches that excludes Simon Magus||"And certain having come down from Judea, were teaching the brethren -- 'If you be not circumcised after the custom of Moses, you are not able to be saved;' there having been, therefore, not a little dissension and disputation to Paul and Barnabas with them, they arranged for Paul and Barnabas, and certain others of them, to go up unto the apostles and elders to Jerusalem about this question, and having come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly, and the apostles, and the elders, they declared also as many things as God did with them; and there rose up certain of those of the sect of the Pharisees who believed, saying -- 'It behooves to circumcise them, to command them also to keep the law of Moses.' And there were gathered together the apostles and the elders, to see about this matter, and there having been much disputing, Peter (having returned from Rome having risen up said unto them, 'Men, brethren, you know that from former days, God among us did make choice, through my mouth, for the nations to hear the word of the good news, and to believe; and the heart-knowing God did bare them testimony, having given to them the Holy Spirit, even as also to us, and did put no difference also between us and them, by the faith having purified their hearts; now, therefore, why do you tempt God, to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? but, through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, we believe to be saved, even as also they.'" (Acts 15:1-10)|
|age 29||Antioch||Paul and Barnabas returning to Antioch with Jesus' other brothers Jude and Simon||"Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, chosen men out of themselves to send to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, Judas surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, leading men among the brethren having written through their hand thus: 'The apostles, and the elders, and the brethren, to those in Antioch, and Syria, and Cilicia, brethren, who are of the nations, greeting;" (Acts 15:22)|
|age 30||Pampylia||Paul disagrees with Barnabas over taking John Mark on the proposed Second Missionary Journey||"And after certain days, Paul said unto Barnabas, 'Having turned back again, we may look after our brethren, in every city in which we have preached the word of the Lord - how they are.' And Barnabas counseled to take with them John called Mark, and Paul was not thinking it good to take him with them who withdrew from them from Pamphylia, and did not go with them to the work; there came, therefore, a sharp contention, so that they were parted from one another," (Acts 15:36-39a)|
|age 30||Cyprus||Barnabas and John Mark take their Mission Journey to Cyprus (Acts of Barnabas)||"and Barnabas having taken Mark, did sail to Cyprus," (Acts 15:39b) Their story is in the Acts of Barnabas.|
|Paul's Second Journey 47-54 AD|
|age 30||Perga||Paul leads Second Mission Journey with Simon-Silas||"and Paul having chosen Silas, went forth, having been given up to the grace of God by the brethren; and he went through Syria and Cilicia confirming the assemblies." (Acts 15:40,41)|
|age 30||Derbe, Lystra||Paul continues Second Mission Journey with Simon-Silas to Derbe and Lystra performing Timothy's Bar Mitzvah||"And he came to Derbe and Lystra, and a certain disciple was there, by name Timothy son of a certain woman, a believing Jewess (Salome), but of a father, a Greek (Aristobulus) as, who was well testified to by the brethren in Lystra and Iconium; this one did Paul wish to go forth with him, and having taken him, he circumcised him, because of the Jews who are in those places, for they all knew his father that he was a Greek," (Acts 16:1) - Timothy's Bar Mitzvah at 12 years old born in 35 AD.|
|age 31||Phrygia, Galatia||Paul continues Second Mission Journey with Simon-Silas in Phrygia and the region of Galatia; they go to Troas||"And having gone through Phrygia and the region of Galatia, having been forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia, having gone toward Mysia, they were trying to go on toward Bithynia, and the Spirit did not suffer them, and having passed by Mysia, they came down to Troas."(Acts 16:6-8) Not allowed to go to Ephesus for the Canonizing of the Gospels in Ephesus (Asia) .|
|age 32||(Ephesus)||Canonizing of the Gospels in Ephesus at Atonement|
|"But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he may be about to sound, and the secret of God may be finished, as He did declare to His own servants, to the prophets." (Revelation 10:7)|
|age 33||Troas||In a Vision Luke tells him that Jesus needs him in Macedonia||"And a vision through the night appeared to Paul -- a certain man of Macedonia (Luke) was standing, calling upon him, and saying, 'Having passed through to Macedonia, help us;'-- and when he saw the vision, immediately we endeavored to go forth to Macedonia, assuredly gathering that the Lord has called us to preach good news to them." (Acts 16:9-10)|
|age 33||Philipi||Baptism of Lydia and betrothal to Jesus||
"Having set sail, therefore, from Troas, we came with a straight course to
Samothracia, on the morrow also to Neapolis, thence also to Philippi, which is a principal
city of the part of Macedonia -- a colony. And we were in this city abiding
certain days. On the sabbath-day also we
went forth outside of the city, by a river, where there used to be prayer, and
having sat down, we were speaking to the women who came together, and a certain woman, by name Lydia, a seller of
purple, of the city of Thyatira, worshipping God, was hearing, whose heart the
Lord did open to attend to the things spoken by Paul; and when she was baptized, and her household,
she did call upon us, saying, 'If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord,
having entered into my house, remain;' and she constrained us." (Acts 16:11-15)|
(Paul takes time to be instructed by Jesus.)
(Note: Most scholars have 50 AD for the Council of Jerusalem, but it was earlier than this - see June 46 AD)
|age 33||Philipi||Paul objects to Bernice's claim of leadership; Paul and Silas imprisoned; the jailor Ananas the Younger is baptized as Christian||"And the multitude rose up together against them, and the magistrates having torn their garments from them, were commanding to beat them with rods, many blows also having laid upon them, they cast them to prison, having given charge to the jailor to keep them safely, who such a charge having received, did put them to the inner prison, and their feet made fast in the stocks ... and they, having gone forth out of the prison, entered into the house of Lydia, and having seen the brethren, they comforted them, and went forth." (Acts 16:22-24,40)|
|age 34||Thessalonica||Paul and Silas continue their Second Mission Journey to Thessalonica; word comes out about the incest of Agrippa and the Lydia 3-month pregnant||"And having passed through Amphipolis, and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where was the synagogue of the Jews, and according to the custom of Paul, he went in unto them, and for three sabbaths he was reasoning with them from the Writings. ... And the unbelieving Jews, having been moved with envy, and having taken to them of the loungers certain evil men, and having made a crowd, were setting the city in an uproar; having assailed also the house of Jason, they were seeking them to bring them to the populace, and not having found them, they drew Jason (Magian Noah figure) and certain brethren unto the city rulers, calling aloud - 'These, having put the world in commotion, are also here present, whom Jason has received; and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying another to be king: Jesus.'" (Acts 17:1-2,5-7)|
|51 AD Summer|
|age 34||(Rome)||Christians expelled from Rome for rioting;|
Paul goes to Corinth
|(Suetonius, Life of Claudius, 25:4 "Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he expelled them from Rome." - Orosius Book 7.6 "In the ninth year of his reign (49 AD could be in error so choosing 51 AD to align with 'recently' in Acts 18:2), Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome.")|
|age 34||Berea||Paul and Silas escape to Berea continuing their Second Mission Journey||"And the brethren immediately, through the night, sent forth both Paul and Silas to Berea, who having come, went to the synagogue of the Jews;" (Acts 17:10)|
|age 34||Berea||Birth Jesus' son is announced by Paul||"And when the Jews from Thessalonica knew that also in Berea was the word of God (birth of a son to Jesus) declared by Paul, they came thither also, agitating the multitudes;" (Acts 17:13)|
|51AD winter||age 35||Athens||Paul departs by sea to Athens without Timothy and Silas to meet Damaris-Phoebe his bride||"and then immediately the brethren sent forth Paul, to go on as it were to the sea, but both Silas and Timothy were remaining there. And those conducting Paul, brought him unto Athens," (Acts 17:14,15a)|
|51AD winter||age 35||Athens||Paul meets Seneca in Athens giving his talk on the Unknown God;||"And certain of the Epicurean and of the Stoic philosophers, were meeting together to see him ... I found also a monument on which had been inscribed: To God - unknown" (Acts 17:18,23)|
|51AD winter||age 35||Athens||Paul Damaris (Tamar - Phoebe) meets Paul and they agree to a March betrothal||"and certain men having cleaved to him, did believe, among whom is also Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman, by name Damaris (Phoebe, daughter of Jesus), and others with them." (Acts 17:34)|
|age 35||Corinth||Meets with Aquila and Priscilla who had returned from Rome||"And after these things, Paul having departed out of Athens, came to Corinth, and having found a certain Jew, by name Aquila, of Pontus by birth, lately come from Italy, and Priscilla his wife - because of Claudius having directed all the Jews to depart out of Rome - he came to them, and because of being of the same craft, he did remain with them, and was working, for they were tent-makers as to craft; and he was reasoning in the synagogue every sabbath, persuading both Jews and Greeks." (Acts 18:1-3) John Aquila and Priscila will be chaperones for Phoebe and Paul.|
|52AD March||age 35||Corinth||Jesus gives Tamar (Phoebe) in marriage to Paul and Paul begins 1.5 year betrothal and marriage||"And the Lord said through
a vision in the night to Paul, 'Be not afraid, but be speaking and you may be
not silent; because I am with you, and no
one shall set on you to do you evil; because I have much people in this city;'
and he continued a year and six months, teaching among them the word of God." (Acts 18:9-11)|
Paul writes First Epistle to the Thessalonians.
|age 35||Corinth||Paul is brought before Gallio (consul 51-52) as his marriage is opposed||He is the brother of Seneca|
"And Gallio being proconsul of Achaia, the Jews made a rush with one accord upon Paul, and brought him unto the tribunal, ... And Paul being about to open his mouth, Gallio said unto the Jews, 'If, indeed, then, it was anything unrighteous, or an act of wicked profligacy, O Jews, according to reason I had borne with you, but if it is a question concerning words and names, and of your law, look you yourselves to it'" (Acts 18:1,12,14-15)
Paul writes Second Epistle to the Thessalonians.
|53AD winter||age 37||Cenchera||Paul goes to Syria (the desert) as a Nazarite then is shorn like a sheep preparing for sex with Phoebe||Having failed to have a child with Phoebe, Paul tries again.: "And Paul having remained yet a good many days, having taken leave of the brethren, was sailing to Syria - and with him are Priscilla and Aquila - having shorn his head in Cenchera, for he had a vow; " (Acts 18:18) Cenchera is a port of ancient Greece, on the Saronic Gulf, east of Corinth. (It is a convent as shown in in his letter Romans 16:1 later on in 57AD: "I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a deacon of the church in Cenchreae"|
|age 37||Ephesus||Sails to Ephesus while continuing his Second Mission Journey to take Phoebe (3 months pregnant) to Mary Magdalene who is staying in Hierapolis||" and he (Paul with Phoebe) came down to Ephesus, and did leave them there, and he himself having entered into the synagogue did reason with the Jews:" (Acts 18:19)|
|age 37||Caesarea, Antioch||Paul's first child 'Paulina' born in Hierapolis. Departs from Ephesus to Caesarea then to Antioch ending his 2nd Mission Journey||"and they having requested him to remain a longer time with them, he did not consent, but took leave of them, saying, 'and again I will return unto you -- God willing.' And he sailed from Ephesus, and having come down to Caesarea, having gone up, and having saluted the assembly, he went down to Antioch. " (Acts 18:20-23b)|
|Paul's Third Journey 54-58 AD|
|age 38||Galatia, Phrygia||Paul begins his Third Mission Journey||
"And having made some stay
he went forth, going through in order the region of Galatia and Phrygia" (Acts 18:23b)|
Paul writes Epistle to the Galatians.
|age 38||Ephesus||Paul is ordained by John Aquila as the Bishop of Ephesus for two years||
"And it came to pass, in
Apollos' being in Corinth, Paul having gone through the upper parts, came to
Ephesus, and having found certain disciples, (Acts 19:1)|
And this happened for two years so that all those dwelling in Asia did hear the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks and mighty works also - not common - was God working through the hands of Paul." (Acts 19:10,11)
|57AD March||age 40||Ephesus||Paul renews marriage vows; sends Phoebe with Jesus and Peter to Rome||
"I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a deacon of the church in Cenchreae. I ask you to receive her in the Lord in a way worthy of his people and to give her any help she may need from you, for she has been the benefactor of many people, including me." (Romans 16:1,2)|
THE VERCELLI ACTS OF PETER IN ROME XVI. Now when the night fell, Peter, while yet waking, beheld Jesus clad in a vesture of brightness, smiling and saying unto him: 'Already is much people of the brotherhood returned through me and through the signs which thou hast wrought in my name. But thou shalt have a contest of the faith upon the sabbath that cometh, and many more of the Gentiles and of the Jews shall be converted in my name unto me who was reproached and mocked and spat upon. For I will be present with thee when thou askest for signs and wonders, and thou shalt convert many: but thou shalt have Simon opposing thee by the works of his father; yet all his works shall be shown to be charms and contrivances of sorcery. But now slack thou not, and whomsoever I shall send unto thee thou shalt establish in my name.'
Writes Epistle to the Romans.
"Now, however, I am on my way to Jerusalem in the service of the Lord’s people there. For Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make a contribution for the poor among the Lord’s people in Jerusalem. They were pleased to do it, and indeed they owe it to them. For if the Gentiles have shared in the Jews’ spiritual blessings, they owe it to the Jews to share with them their material blessings." (Romans 15:25-29) (He did not fulfill this until the next year probably to disassociate himself with the killing of Jonathan Annas by the procurator Felix.)
|57AD March||age 40||Jerusalem||Procurator Felix kills Jonathan Annas using Sicarii||
(Antiquities 20.8.5) Felix also bore an ill-will to Jonathan, the high priest, because he frequently gave him admonitions about governing the Jewish affairs better than he did, lest he should himself have complaints made of him by the multitude, since he it was who had desired Caesar to send him as procurator of Judea. So Felix contrived a method whereby he might get rid of him, now he was become so continually troublesome to him; for such continual admonitions are grievous to those who are disposed to act unjustly. Wherefore Felix persuaded one of Jonathan's most faithful friends, a citizen of Jerusalem, whose name was Doras, to bring the robbers upon Jonathan, in order to kill him; and this he did by promising to give him a great deal of money for so doing. Doras complied with the proposal, and contrived matters so, that the robbers might murder him after the following manner: Certain of those robbers went up to the city, as if they were going to worship God, while they had daggers under their garments, and by thus mingling themselves among the multitude they slew Jonathan and as this murder was never avenged, the robbers went up with the greatest security at the festivals after this time; and having weapons concealed in like manner as before, and mingling themselves among the multitude, they slew certain of their own enemies, and were subservient to other men for money; and slew others, not only in remote parts of the city, but in the temple itself also; for they had the boldness to murder men there, without thinking of the impiety of which they were guilty.|
(Paul was suspected of complicity in this because of his hatred to Jonathan Annas which began back in 37AD and especially when he learned that Jonathan had arranged for Jesus to be traded for Barabbas. This was the real reason for his journey to Rome with Felix for trial before Nero:)
"Therefore, to keep me from being too elated, a thorn (indicated a Sadducee as they wore a crown with a thorn, thus given rise to Jesus being mocked by a crown of thorns i.e. Jonathan Annas) was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me, to keep me from being too elated. Three times I appealed to the Lord about this, that it would leave me, but he said to me, 'My grace is sufficient for you, for power is made perfect in weakness.' So, I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me. Therefore I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities for the sake of Christ; for whenever I am weak, then I am strong." (2Corinthians 12:7-10)
|age 40||Troas||Paul celebrates waits until his 41th birthday and goes to Troas (Asia) for the sexual part of marriage renewal with Phoebe, who had returned from Rome||
"And having sent to
Macedonia two of those ministering to him, Timothy and Erastus, he himself
stayed a period (chronon - to the end of 40th birthday) Troas (Asia)." (Acts 19:22)|
Writes First Epistle to the Corinthians.
"Now when I went to Troas to preach the gospel of Christ and found that the Lord had opened a door for me, (having agreed to Paul's renewal of marriage to his daughter Phoebe) I still had no peace of mind, because I did not find my brother Titus there. So I said goodbye to them and went on to Thessalonica, Macedonia." (2Corinthians 2:12-13)
|57AD December||age 41||(Ephesus)||Mary Magdalene dies and Simon Magus sells statues of her; Paul's objection is made up as he is still in Troas||"And there came, at that
time, not a little stir about the way, for
a certain one, Demetrius by name, a worker in silver, making silver sanctuaries
of Artemis, was bringing to the artificers gain not a little, whom, having brought in a crowd together, and
those who did work about such things, he said, 'Men, you know that by this work
we have our wealth; and you see and hear,
that not only at Ephesus, but almost in all Asia, this Paul, having persuaded,
did turn away a great multitude, saying, that they are not gods who are made by
hands;" (Acts 19:23-26)|
Writes First Epistle to Timothy
|58AD January||age 41||Corinth||Paul having continued his mission, returns to Corinth as Phoebe to be there for Phoebe's three months pregnant in March||"Paul having called near the disciples, and having embraced them,
went forth to go on to Thessalonica, Macedonia ; and
having gone through those parts, and having exhorted them with many words, he
came to Greece (Corinth); having made also three
months' stay - a counsel of the Jews having been against him - being about
to sail forth to Troas (Syria), there came to him a resolution of returning through
Macedonia." (Acts 20:1-3)|
Writes Second Epistle to the Corinthians.
|58AD March||age 41||Troas||25th anniversary of the Last Supper||"and we sailed, after the days of the unleavened food, from Philippi, and came unto them to Troas in five days, where we abode seven days. And on the first of the week, the disciples having been gathered together to break bread, Paul was discoursing to them, about to depart on the morrow, he was also continuing the discourse till midnight, and there were many lamps in the upper chamber where they were gathered together" (Acts 20:6-8)|
|58AD March||age 41||Troas||Joyous reunion of John Mark (Eutychus) once dead - being with Simon Magus||"and there was sitting a certain youth, by name Eutychus, upon the window -- being borne down by a deep sleep, Paul discoursing long -- he having sunk down from the sleep, fell down from the third story, and was lifted up dead. And Paul, having gone down, fell upon him, and having embraced him, said, 'Make no tumult, for his life is in him;' and having come up, and having broken bread, and having tasted, for a long time also having talked -- till daylight, so he went forth, and they brought up the lad alive, and were comforted in no ordinary measure." (Acts 20:9-11)|
|58AD April||age 41||Assos||The group (including Phoebe) set by ship eastwards; Paul joins them at Assos||"And we having gone before unto the ship, did sail to Assos, thence intending to take in Paul, for so he had arranged, intending himself to go on foot; and when he met with us at Assos, having taken him up, we came to Mitylene, and thence having sailed, on the morrow we came over-against Chios, and the next day we arrived at Samos, and having remained in Trogyllium, on the following day we came to Miletus, or Paul decided to sail past Ephesus, that there may not be to him a loss of time in Asia, for he hasted, if it were possible for him, on the day of the Pentecost to be at Jerusalem (Qumran)." (Acts 20:13-16)|
|58AD April||age 41||Miletus||Paul resigns his ministry at Ephesus||"And from Miletus, having sent to Ephesus, he called for the elders of the assembly, and when they were come unto him, he said to them, 'You -- you know from the first day in which I came to Asia, how, with you at all times I was; serving the Lord with all humility, and many tears, and temptations, that befell me in the counsels of the Jews against me; how nothing I did keep back of what things are profitable, not to declare to you, and to teach you publicly, and in every house, testifying fully both to Jews and Greeks, toward God reformation, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ." (Acts 20:17-18)|
|58AD May||age 41||Tyre||Stopping in Tyre where Phoebe gets off; Paul is reminded that he is unclean||"... and did land at Tyre, for there was the ship discharging the lading. And having found out the disciples, we tarried there seven days, and they said to Paul, through the Spirit, not to go up to Jerusalem (Qumran); but when it came that we completed the days, having gone forth, we went on, all bringing us on the way, with women and children, unto the outside of the city, and having bowed the knees upon the shore, we prayed, and having embraced one another, we embarked in the ship, and they returned to their own friends." (Acts 21:3-6)|
|58AD May||age 41||Caesarea||Stopping at Caesarea to visit Philip, Agabus (Matthew warns Paul that he will be arrested||"And on the morrow Paul and his company having gone forth, we came to Caesarea, and having entered into the house of Philip the evangelist -- who is of the seven -- we remained with him, and this one had four daughters, virgins, prophesying. And we remaining many more days, there came down a certain one from Judea, a prophet, by name Agabus, and he having come unto us, and having taken up the girdle of Paul, having bound also his own hands and feet, said, 'Thus said the Holy Spirit, The man whose is this girdle -- so shall the Jews in Jerusalem bind, and they shall deliver [him] up to the hands of nations." (Acts 21:8-11)|
|58AD May||age 41||Qumran||Paul arrives in Jerusalem (Qumran) Ending his Third Mission Journey||"Jerusalem (Qumran), the brethren did gladly receive us, and on the morrow Paul was going in with us unto James, all the elders also came," (Acts 21:19) "and having saluted them, he was declaring, one by one, each of the things God did among the nations through his ministration," (Acts 21:17-18)|
|58AD June||age 41||Jerusalem||Going from Qumran (Jerusalem) to Jerusalem, he enters the Temple and is attacked and speaks to the people on the stairs of the prison||
"The people crying out, 'Men, Israelites, help! this is the
man who, against the people, and the law, and this place, all everywhere is
teaching; and further, also, Greeks he brought into the temple, and has defiled
this holy place;' for they had seen before
Trophimus, the Ephesian, in the city with him, whom they were supposing that
Paul brought into the temple. All the city also was
moved and there was a running together of the people, and having laid hold on
Paul, they were drawing him out of the temple, and immediately were the doors
shut, and they seeking to kill him, a
rumor came to the chief captain of the band that all Jerusalem has been thrown
into confusion, who, at once, having taken
soldiers and centurions, ran down upon them, and they having seen the chief
captain and the soldiers, did leave off beating Paul.Then the chief captain,
having come near, took him, and commanded [him] to be bound with two chains, and
was inquiring who he may be, and what it is he has been doing, and some were crying out one thing, and some
another, among the multitude, and not being able to know the certainty because
of the tumult, he commanded him to be carried to the castle, (Acts 21:28-34)|
'Men, brethren, and fathers, hear my defense now unto you ...' then the chief captain commanded him to be brought into the castle. "(Acts 22:1,24)
|58AD June||age 41||Jerusalem||Jesus comforts him and promises that he will go to Rome||"And on the following night, the Lord having stood by him, said, 'Take courage, Paul, for as you did fully testify the things concerning me at Jerusalem, so it behooves you also at Rome to testify.'" (Acts 23:11)|
|58AD June||age 41||Jerusalem||Paul's sister's son warns him (Trophimus, son of Salome, Paul's half sister)||Acts 23:16 "And the son of Paul's sister having heard of the lying in wait, having gone and entered into the castle, told Paul, and Paul having called near one of the centurions, said, 'This young man lead unto the chief captain, for he has something to tell him.' "(Acts 23:16,17)|
|58AD June||age 41||Caesarea||Paul is transported to a house arrest in Caesarea under Felix||"having called near a certain two of the centurions, he (chief captain) said, 'Make ready soldiers two hundred, that they may go on unto Caesarea' ... (Felix) having given also a direction to the centurion to keep Paul, to let him also have liberty, and to forbid none of his own friends to minister or to come near to him. "(Acts 23:23; 24:23)|
|58AD September||age 41||Caesarea||A bribe is given to Felix so that Paul and see his daughter after her birth||"And after certain days, Felix having come with Drusilla his wife, being a Jewess, he sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith toward Christ, and he reasoning concerning righteousness, and temperance, and the judgment that is about to be, Felix, having become afraid, answered, 'For the present be going, and having got time, I will call for you;' and at the same time also hoping that money shall be given to him by Paul, that he may release him, therefore, also sending for him the oftener, he was conversing with him.".(Acts 24:24-26)|
|age 43||Jerusalem||Procurator Festus takes over for Felix and hears his case. He asks to be judged by Caesar||"And Paul said, 'At the tribunal of Caesar I am standing, where it behooves me to be judged; to Jews I did no unrighteousness, as you do also very well know; for if indeed I am unrighteous, and anything worthy of death have done, I deprecate not to die; and if there is none of the things of which these accuse me, no one is able to make a favor of me to them; to Caesar I appeal!'" (Acts 25:10)|
|60AD June||age 43||Caesarea||Agrippa II and Bernice hear the case||
"And certain days having
passed, Agrippa the king, and Bernice, came down to Caesarea saluting Festus, |
And Agrippa said to Festus, 'This man might have been released if he had not appealed to Caesar.'" (Acts 25:13; 26:32)
|Paul's Fourth Journey 60-61 AD|
|60AD July||age 43||Caesarea||The ship departs for Rome with Paul, Peter, Luke with Jesus, and Felix||"And having embarked in a ship of Adramyttium, we, being about to sail by the coasts of Asia, did set sail, there being with us Aristarchus (Aristobulus), a Macedonian of Thessalonica" (Acts 27:2)|
|60AD July||age 44||Sidon||Allowed to stop to pick up Phoebe and his two daughters||"on the next day also we touched at Sidon, and Julius, courteously treating Paul, did permit him, having gone on unto friends, to receive their care." (Acts 27:3)|
|60AD August||age 43||Myra||Sailing to Myra, changing ship||"And thence, having set sail, we sailed under Cyprus, because of the winds being contrary, and having sailed over the sea over-against Cilicia and Pamphylia, we came to Myria of Lycia, and there the centurion having found a ship of Alexandria, sailing to Italy, did put us into it," (Acts 27:4-6)|
|60AD September||age 43||Crete||Arrive at Fair Havens||"and having sailed slowly many days, and with difficulty coming over-against Cnidus, the wind not suffering us, we sailed under Crete, over-against Salmone, and hardly passing it, we came to a certain place called 'Fair Havens,'near to which was the city of Lasaea." (Acts 27:7-8)|
|60AD December||age 44||Malta||Shipwrecked at Malta;||"and the haven being incommodious to winter in, the more part gave counsel to sail thence also, if by any means they might be able, having attained to Phoenicia, [there] to winter, which is a haven of Crete, looking to the south-west and north-west, and a south wind blowing softly, having thought they had obtained [their] purpose, having lifted anchor, they sailed close by Crete, and not long after there arose against it a tempestuous wind, that is called Euroclydon, ... And when the fourteenth night came -- we being borne up and down in the Adria -- toward the middle of the night the sailors were supposing that some country drew near to them; ... And having been saved, then they knew that the island is called Malta," (Acts 27:12-14,27,28:1)|
|60AD December||age 44||Malta||Paul attacked by a Apollos (viper), vindicated by Publius (Ananus the Younger)||"and the foreigners were showing us no ordinary kindness, for having kindled a fire, they received us all, because of the pressing rain, and because of the cold; but Paul having gathered together a quantity of sticks, and having laid them upon the fire, a viper, out of the heat having come, did fasten on his hand. And when the foreigners saw the beast hanging from his hand, they said unto one another, 'Certainly this man is a murderer, whom, having been saved out of the sea, the justice did not suffer to live;' he then, indeed, having shaken off the beast into the fire, suffered no evil, ... And in the neighborhood of that place were lands of the principal man of the island, by name Publius, who, having received us, three days did courteously lodge us;" (Acts 28:2-5,7)|
|61AD March||age 44||Syracuse||After three months, sailed to Syracuse||And after three months, "we set sail in a ship (that had wintered in the isle) of Alexandria, with the sign Dioscuri, and having landed at Syracuse, we remained three days," (Acts 28:11,12)|
|61AD March||age 44||Rome||Sailing to Rhegium, then Puteoli, then to Rome||thence "having gone round, we came to Rhegium, and after one day, a south wind having sprung up, the second day we came to Puteoli; where, having found brethren, we were called upon to remain with them seven days, and thus to Rome we came; and thence, the brethren having heard the things concerning us, came forth to meet us, unto Appia Forum, and Three Taverns - whom Paul having seen, having given thanks to God, took courage. And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered up the prisoners to the captain of the barrack, but Paul was suffered to remain by himself, with the soldier guarding him." (Acts 28:13-16)|
|61-63AD March||age 44||Rome||Paul under house arrest in Rome|| and Paul remained an entire two years in his own
hired house, and was receiving all those coming in unto him, preaching the reign of God, and teaching the
things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ with all boldness unforbidden.
Epistle to Titus 3:13 "Do everything you can to help Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their way and see that they have everything they need". (Apollos escaping from abortive "Walls of Jericho" to Crete.) "As I urged you upon my departure for Macedonia, to remain on at Ephesus so that you may instruct certain men not to teach strange doctrine."(1Timothy 1:3)
Writes Epistle to Philippians.
Writes Epistle to Titus.
Writes Second Epistle to Timothy.
Writes Epistle to Philemon.
Writes Epistle to Colossians.
Writes Epistle to Ephesians.
|63AD March||age 46||Spain||Felix acquitted by influence of Pallas, his brother and Paul is released; goes to Spain; Pallas is killed by Nero||
"So after I have completed this task and have made sure that they have received this contribution, (unfortunately he was delayed by his arrest in Jerusalem to fulfill his intention) I will go to Spain and visit you on the way. I know that when I come to you, I will come in the full measure of the blessing of Christ." (Romans 15:28)|
"At the time when Paul was sojourning in Rome and confirming many in the faith, it came also to pass that one by name Candida, the wife of Quartus that was over the prisons, heard Paul and paid heed to his words and believed. And when she had instructed her husband also and he believed, Quartus suffered Paul to go whither he would away from the city: to whom Paul said: If it be the will of God, he will reveal it unto me. And after Paul had fasted three days and asked of the Lord that which should be profitable for him, he saw a vision, even the Lord saying unto him: Arise, Paul, and become a physician in thy body (i.e. by going thither in person) to them that are in Spain." (Acts of Peter 3:1 THE VERCELLI ACTS)
Another writes Epistle to the Hebrews.
|64AD June||age 47||Rome||Nero Accuses the Christians of Setting the Fire||"But all human efforts, all the lavish gifts of the emperor, and the propitiations of the gods, did not banish the sinister belief that the conflagration was the result of an order. Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilate, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their center and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired."(Tacitus Annals15.38)|
|65AD June||age 48||Rome||Seneca is accused in the plot against Nero and due to Paul's relationship with him, Paul is beheaded||"Owing to envy, Paul also obtained the reward of patient endurance, after being seven times thrown into captivity, compelled to flee, and stoned. After preaching both in the east and west, he gained the illustrious reputation due to his faith, having taught righteousness to the whole world, and come to the extreme limit of the west, and suffered martyrdom under the prefects. Thus was he removed from the world, and went into the holy place, having proved himself a striking example of patience." (1Clement Epistle to the Corinthians, Chapter 5)|
Evidence that Jesus is alive, having been rescued by Peter and John Mark from the tomb after the Crucifixion.
|Gospel of Peter 35-42||And in the night in which the Lord's day was drawing on, as the soldiers kept guard two by two in a watch, there was a great voice in the heaven; and they saw the heavens opened, and two men descend from thence with great light and approach the tomb. And that stone which was put at the door rolled of itself and made way in part ; and the tomb was opened, and both the young men entered in. When therefore those soldiers saw it, they awakened the centurion and the elders, for they too were hard by keeping guard; and, as they declared what things they had seen, again they see three men coming forth from the tomb, and two of them supporting one, and a cross following them. And of the two the head reached unto the heaven, but the head of him that was led by them overpassed the heavens. And they heard a voice from the heavens, saying 'Hast thou preached to them that sleep?' And a response was heard from the cross, 'Yea.'|
Evidence that Jesus is speaking directly to Paul, Ananias (Simon Magus) and Peter.
|Acts 9:3-6||And in the going, he came near to Damascus, and suddenly there shone round about him a light from the heaven, and having fallen upon the earth, he heard a voice saying to him, 'Saul, Saul, why me do you persecute?' And he said, 'Who are you, Lord?'and the Lord said, 'I am Jesus whom you do persecute; hard for you at the pricks to kick; trembling also, and astonished, he said, 'Lord, what do you wish me to do?'and the Lord [said] unto him, 'Arise, and enter into the city, and it shall be told you what it behooves you to do.'|
|Acts 9:10-16||And there was a certain disciple in Damascus, by name Ananias, and the Lord said unto him in a vision, 'Ananias;'and he said, 'Behold me, Lord;' and the Lord [said] unto him, 'Having risen, go on unto the street that is called Straight, and seek in the house of Judas, one by name Saul of Tarsus, for, lo, he does pray, and he saw in a vision a man, by name Ananias, coming in, and putting a hand on him, that he may see again.' And Ananias answered, 'Lord, I have heard from many about this man, how many evils he did to Your saints in Jerusalem, and here he has authority from the chief priests, to bind all those calling on Your name.' And the Lord said unto him, 'Be going on, because a choice vessel to Me is this one, to bear My name before nations and kings -- the sons also of Israel; for I will show him how many things it behooves him for My name to suffer.'||Acts 26:15-16||'And I said, Who are you, Lord? and he said, I am Jesus whom you do persecute; but rise, and stand upon your feet, for for this I appeared to you, to appoint you an officer and a witness both of the things you did see, and of the things in which I will appear to you ...'|
|Acts 10:9-21||And on the morrow, as these are proceeding on The Way, and are drawing near to the city, Peter went up upon the house-top to pray, about the sixth hour, and he became very hungry, and wished to eat; and they making ready, there fell upon him a trance, and he does behold the heaven opened, and descending unto him a certain vessel, as a great sheet, bound at the four corners, and let down upon the earth, in which were all the four-footed beasts of the earth, and the wild beasts, and the creeping things, and the fowls of the heaven, and there came a voice unto him: 'Having risen, Peter, slay and eat.'And Peter said, 'Not so, Lord; because at no time did I eat anything common or unclean;' and [there is] a voice again a second time unto him: 'What God did cleanse, you, declare not you common;' and this was done thrice, and again was the vessel received up to the heaven. And as Peter was perplexed in himself what the vision that he saw might be, then, lo, the men who have been sent from Cornelius, having made inquiry for the house of Simon, stood at the gate, and having called, they were asking if Simon, who is surnamed Peter, does lodge here? And Peter thinking about the vision, the Spirit said to him, 'Lo, three men do seek you; but having risen, go down and go on with them, nothing doubting, because I have sent them;' and Peter having come down unto the men who have been sent from Cornelius unto him, said, 'Lo, I am he whom you seek, what is the cause for which you are present?'|
|Acts 11:4-18||And Peter having begun, did expound to them in order saying, 'I was in the city of Joppa praying, and I saw in a trance a vision, a certain vessel coming down, as a great sheet by four corners being let down out of the heaven, and it came unto me; at which having looked steadfastly, I was considering, and I saw the four-footed beasts of the earth, and the wild beasts, and the creeping things, and the fowls of heaven; and I heard a voice saying to me, Having risen, Peter, slay and eat; and I said, Not so, Lord; because anything common or unclean has at no time entered into my mouth; and a voice did answer me a second time out of the heaven, What God did cleanse, you -- declare not you common. 'And this happened thrice, and again was all drawn up to the heaven, and, lo, immediately, three men stood at the house in which I was, having been sent from Caesarea unto me, and the Spirit said to me to go with them, nothing doubting, and these six brethren also went with me, and we did enter into the house of the man, he declared also to us how he saw the angel in his house standing, and saying to him, Send men to Joppa, and call for Simon, who is surnamed Peter, who shall speak sayings by which you shall be saved, you and all your house. 'And in my beginning to speak, the Holy Spirit did fall upon them, even as also upon us in the beginning, and I remembered the saying of the Lord, how he said, John indeed did baptize with water, and you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit; if then the equal gift God did give to them as also to us, having believed upon the Lord Jesus Christ, I -- how was I able to withstand God?' And they, having heard these things, were silent, and were glorifying God, saying, 'Then, indeed, also to the nations did God give the reformation to life.'|
|Acts 16:9,10||And a vision through the night appeared to Paul -- a certain man of Macedonia was standing, calling upon him, and saying, 'Having passed through to Macedonia, help us;' - and when he saw the vision, immediately we endeavored to go forth to Macedonia, assuredly gathering that the Lord has called us to preach good news to them,|
|Acts 18:9-10||And the Lord said through a vision in the night to Paul, 'Be not afraid, but be speaking and you may be not silent; because I am with you, and no one shall set on you to do you evil; because I have much people in this city;'||Acts 23:11||And on the following night, the Lord having stood by him, said, 'Take courage, Paul, for as you did fully testify the things concerning me at Jerusalem, so it behooves you also at Rome to testify.'||1Corinthians 15:6-8||
After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he (Jesus) appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born.
||2Corinthians 12 1-5||I must go on boasting. Although there is nothing to be gained, I will go on to visions and revelations from the Lord. I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven. Whether it was in the body or out of the body I do not know—God knows. And I know that this man—whether in the body or apart from the body I do not know, but God knows - was caught up to paradise and heard inexpressible things, things that no one is permitted to tell. I will boast about a man like that, but I will not boast about myself, except about my weaknesses.||Ephesians 3:2-2b||Surely you have heard about the administration of God’s grace that was given to me for you, that is, the mystery made known to me by revelation||Galatians 1:11-12||I want you to know, brothers, that the gospel I preached is not something that man made up. I did not receive it from any man, nor was I taught it; rather, I received it by revelation from Jesus Christ.||Galatians 1:15-17a||But when God, who set me apart from birth and called me by his grace, was pleased to reveal his Son in me so that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I did not consult any man,||Galatians 2:2||I went in response to a revelation and, meeting privately with those esteemed as leaders, I presented to them the gospel that I preach among the Gentiles. I wanted to be sure I was not running and had not been running my race in vain.||Ephesians 1:17||I keep asking that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the glorious Father, may give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, so that you may know him better.||Ephesians 3:2-3||Surely you have heard about the administration of God’s grace that was given to me for you, that is, the mystery made known to me by revelation, as I have already written briefly.||Acts of Peter|
(THE VERCELLI ACTS III.1)
|Quartus suffered Paul to go whither he would away from the city: to whom Paul said: If it be the will of God, he will reveal it unto me. And after Paul had fasted three days and asked of the Lord that which should be profitable for him, he saw a vision, even the Lord saying unto him: Arise, Paul, and become a physician in thy body (i.e. by going thither in person) to them that are in Spain.||Acts of Peter|
|So he (Peter) assented to the brethren and withdrew by himself, saying, 'Let none of you retire with me, but I shall retire by myself in disguise' And as he went out of the gate he saw the Lord entering Rome, and when he saw him he said, 'Lord, where are you going here?" (In Latin, domine quo vadis). And the Lord said to him, 'I am coming to Rome to be crucified.' And Peter said to him, 'Lord, are you being crucified again?' He said to him, 'Yes, Peter, I am being crucified again.' And Peter came to himself, and he saw the Lord ascending into heaven; then he returned to Rome rejoicing and giving praise to the Lord, because he said, 'I am being crucified'; since this was to happen to Peter.|